Natural Gas and the Environment

view_lakeNatural gas is an extremely important source of energy for reducing pollution and maintaining a clean and healthy environment. In addition to being a domestically abundant and secure source of energy, the use of natural gas also offers a number of environmental benefits over other sources of energy, particularly other fossil fuels. This section will discuss the environmental effects of natural gas in terms of emissions, as well as the environmental impact of the natural gas industry itself. Scroll down, or click on the links below to be transported ahead.

Emissions from the Combustion of Natural Gas

Natural gas is the cleanest of all the fossil fuels, as evidenced in the Environmental Protection Agency’s data comparisons in the chart below, which is still current as of 2010. Composed primarily of methane, the main products of the combustion of natural gas are carbon dioxide and water vapor, the same compounds we exhale when we breathe. Coal and oil are composed of much more complex molecules, with a higher carbon ratio and higher nitrogen and sulfur contents. This means that when combusted, coal and oil release higher levels of harmful emissions, including a higher ratio of carbon emissions, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Coal and fuel oil also release ash particles into the environment, substances that do not burn but instead are carried into the atmosphere and contribute to pollution. The combustion of natural gas, on the other hand, releases very small amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, virtually no ash or particulate matter, and lower levels of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other reactive hydrocarbons.

Fossil Fuel Emission Levels
- Pounds per Billion Btu of Energy Input
Pollutant Natural Gas Oil Coal
Carbon Dioxide 117,000 164,000 208,000
Carbon Monoxide 40 33 208
Nitrogen Oxides 92 448 457
Sulfur Dioxide 1 1,122 2,591
Particulates 7 84 2,744
Mercury 0.000 0.007 0.016
Source: EIA – Natural Gas Issues and Trends 1998

 

Natural gas, as the cleanest of the fossil fuels, can be used in many ways to help reduce the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere. Burning natural gas in the place of other fossil fuels emits fewer harmful pollutants, and an increased reliance on natural gas can potentially reduce the emission of many of these most harmful pollutants.

Pollutants emitted in the United States, particularly from the combustion of fossil fuels, have led to the development of many pressing environmental problems. Natural gas, emitting fewer harmful chemicals into the atmosphere than other fossil fuels, can help to mitigate some of these environmental issues. These issues include:

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-2007

Global warming, or the ‘greenhouse effect’ is an environmental issue that deals with the potential for global climate change due to increased levels of atmospheric ‘greenhouse gases’. There are certain gases in our atmosphere that serve to regulate the amount of heat that is kept close to the
earth’s surface. Scientists theorize that an increase in these greenhouse gases will translate into increased temperatures around the globe, which would result in many disastrous environmental effects. In fact, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its ‘Fourth Assessment Report’ released in 2007 that during the 21st century, global average temperatures are expected to rise by between 2.0 and 11.5 degrees Fahrenheit.  A Fifth Assessment Report is expected to be released by the IPCC between 2013 and 2015.

Power Plants Contribute to the
Emission of Greenhouse Gases
Source: API

The principle greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and some engineered chemicals such as cholorofluorocarbons. While most of these gases occur in the atmosphere naturally, levels have been increasing due to the widespread burning of fossil fuels by growing human populations. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become a primary focus of environmental programs in countries around the world.

One of the principle greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. Although carbon dioxide does not trap heat as effectively as other greenhouse gases (making it a less potent greenhouse gas), the sheer volume of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere is very high, particularly from the burning of fossil fuels. In fact, according to the Energy Information Administration in its December 2009 report ‘Emissions of Greenhouse Gases’ in the United States, 81.3 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States in 2008 came from energy-related carbon dioxide.

Source: EIA-Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Report 2009

Because carbon dioxide makes up such a high proportion of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, reducing carbon dioxide emissions can play a pivotal role in combating the greenhouse effect and global warming. The combustion of natural gas emits almost 30 percent less carbon dioxide than oil, and just under 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal.

One issue that has arisen with respect to natural gas and the greenhouse effect is the fact that methane, the principle component of natural gas, is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Methane has an ability to trap heat almost 21 times more effectively than carbon dioxide. According to theEnergy Information Administration, although methane emissions account for only 1.1 percent of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, they account for 8.5 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions based on global warming potential. Sources of methane emissions in the U.S. include the waste management and operations industry, the agricultural industry, as well as leaks and emissions from the oil and gas industry itself. A major study performed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), now Gas Technology Institute, in 1997 sought to discover whether the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from increased natural gas use would be offset by a possible increased level of methane emissions. The study concluded that the reduction in emissions from increased natural gas use strongly outweighs the detrimental effects of increased methane emissions.  More recently in 2011, researchers at the Carnegie Mellon University released “Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas”, a report comparing greenhouse gas emissions from the Marcellus Shale region with emissions from coal used for electricity generation.  The authors found that wells in the Marcellus region emit 20 percent to 50 percent less greenhouse gases than coal used to produce electricity.

In 1993, the natural gas industry joined with EPA in launching the Natural Gas STAR Program to reduce methane emissions.  The STAR program has chronicled dramatic reductions to methane emissions, since that time:

  • EPA STAR data shows a reduction in methane emissions each year for the last 16 years
  • More than 904 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of methane emissions were eliminated through the STAR program 1993-2009; and
  • In 2009 alone, the program reduced methane emissions by 86 Bcf.

Thus the increased use of natural gas in the place of other, dirtier fossil fuels can serve to lessen the emission of greenhouse gases in the United States.

For more information on the Greenhouse Effect, visit the EPA’s climate change site.

Smog, Air Quality and Acid Rain

Smog – Natural Gas Can Help
Source: EPA

Smog and poor air quality is a pressing environmental problem, particularly for large metropolitan cities. Smog, the primary constituent of which is ground level ozone, is formed by a chemical reaction of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and heat from sunlight. As well as creating that familiar smoggy haze commonly found surrounding large cities, particularly in the summer time, smog and ground level ozone can contribute to respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort to long-lasting, permanent lung damage. Pollutants contributing to smog come from a variety of sources, including vehicle emissions, smokestack emissions, paints, and solvents. Because the reaction to create smog requires heat, smog problems are the worst in the summertime.

Source: Environmental Protection Agency

The use of natural gas does not contribute significantly to smog formation, as it emits low levels of nitrogen oxides, and virtually no particulate matter. For this reason, it can be used to help combat smog formation in those areas where ground level air quality is poor. The main sources of nitrogen oxides are electric utilities, motor vehicles, and industrial plants. Increased natural gas use in the electric generation sector, a shift to cleaner natural gas vehicles, or increased industrial natural gas use, could all serve to combat smog production, especially in urban centers where it is needed the most. Particularly in the summertime, when natural gas demand is lowest and smog problems are the greatest, industrial plants and electric generators could use natural gas to fuel their operations instead of other, more polluting fossil fuels. This would effectively reduce the emissions of smog causing chemicals, and result in clearer, healthier air around urban centers.

For more information on smog, including the major contributors to smog formation and what is currently being done to combat smog levels, visit the EPA’s smog information section.
Particulate emissions also cause the degradation of air quality in the United States. These
particulates can include soot, ash, metals, and other airborne particles. A study by the Union of Concerned Scientists in 1998, entitled ‘Cars and Trucks and Air Pollution’, showed that the risk of premature death for residents in areas with high airborne particulate matter was 26 percent greater than for those in areas with low particulate levels. Natural gas emits virtually no particulates into the atmosphere: in fact, emissions of particulates from natural gas combustion are 90 percent lower than from the combustion of oil, and 99 percent lower than burning coal. Thus increased natural gas use in place of other dirtier hydrocarbons can help to reduce particulate emissions in the U.S.  Current consequences stemming from global warming raised by the Union of Concerned Scientists can be found on their site.

Acid rain is another environmental problem that affects much of the Eastern United States, damaging crops, forests, wildlife populations, and causing respiratory and other illnesses in humans. Acid rain is formed when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water vapor and other chemicals in the presence of sunlight to form various acidic compounds in the air. The principle source of acid rain-causing pollutants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, are coal fired power plants. Since natural gas emits virtually no sulfur dioxide, and up to 80 percent less nitrogen oxides than the combustion of coal, increased use of natural gas could provide for fewer acid rain causing emissions.

Industrial and Electric Generation Emissions

Pollutant emissions from the industrial sector and electric utilities contribute greatly to environmental problems in the United States. The use of natural gas to power both industrial boilers and processes and the generation of electricity can significantly improve the emissions profiles for these two sectors.

Natural gas is becoming an increasingly important fuel in the generation of electricity. As well as providing an efficient, competitively priced fuel for the generation of electricity, the increased use of natural gas allows for the improvement in the emissions profile of the electric generation industry. According to the National Environmental Trust (NET), now Pew Charitable Trusts (PEW), in their 2002 publication entitled ‘Cleaning up Air Pollution from America’s Power Plants’, power plants in the U.S. account for 67 percent of sulfur dioxide emissions, 40 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, 25 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions, and 34 percent of mercury emissions. Coal fired power plants are the greatest contributors to these types of emissions. In fact, according to World Watch Report 184, natural gas combined cycle power plants emit half as much carbon dioxide as modern super critical coal plants.

Emissions from Industrial
Smokestacks
Source: EPA

Natural gas-fired electric generation and natural gas-powered industrial applications offer a variety of environmental benefits and environmentally friendly uses, including:

  • Fewer Emissions - Combustion of natural gas, used in the generation of electricity, industrial boilers, and other applications, emits lower levels of NOx, CO2, and particulate emissions, and virtually no SO2 and mercury emissions. Natural gas can be used in place of, or in addition to, other fossil fuels, including coal, oil, or petroleum coke, which emit significantly higher levels of these pollutants.
  • Reduced Sludge – Coal-fired power plants and industrial boilers that use scrubbers to reduce SO2 emissions levels generate thousands of tons of harmful sludge. Combustion of natural gas emits extremely low levels of SO2, eliminating the need for scrubbers, and reducing the amounts of sludge associated with power plants and industrial processes.
  • Reburning - This process involves injecting natural gas into coal or oil fired boilers. The addition of natural gas to the fuel mix can result in NOx emission reductions of 50 to 70 percent, and SO2 emission reductions of 20 to 25 percent.
  • Cogeneration - The production and use of both heat and electricity can increase the energy efficiency of electric generation systems and industrial boilers, which translates to the combustion of less fuel and the emission of fewer pollutants. Natural gas is the preferred choice for new cogeneration applications.
  • Combined Cycle Generation – Combined-cycle generation units generate electricity and capture normally wasted heat energy, using it to generate more electricity. Like cogeneration applications, this increases energy efficiency, uses less fuel, and thus produces fewer emissions. Natural gas-fired combined-cycle generation units can be up to 60 percent energy efficient, whereas coal and oil generation units are typically only 30 to 35 percent efficient.
  • Fuel Cells - Natural gas fuel cell technologies are in development for the generation of electricity. Fuel cells are sophisticated devices that use hydrogen to generate electricity, much like a battery. No emissions are involved in the generation of electricity from fuel cells, and natural gas, being a hydrogen rich source of fuel, can be used. Although still under development, widespread use of fuel cells could in the future significantly reduce the emissions associated with the generation of electricity.

Essentially, electric generation and industrial applications that require energy, particularly for heating, use the combustion of fossil fuels for that energy. Because of its clean burning nature, the use of natural gas wherever possible, either in conjunction with other fossil fuels, or instead of them, can help to reduce the emission of harmful pollutants.

According to the Congressional Research Service’s 2010 report: “Displacing Coal with Generation from Existing Natural-Gas Fired Power Plants,” if natural-gas combined cycle plants utilization were to be doubled from 42 percent capacity factor to 85 percent, then the amount of power generated would displace 19 percent of the CO2 emissions attributed to coal-fired electricity generation.

Pollution from the Transportation Sector – Natural Gas Vehicles

Source: EPA

The transportation sector (particularly cars, trucks, and buses) is one of the greatest contributors to air pollution in the United States. Emissions from vehicles contribute to smog, low visibility, and various greenhouse gas emissions. According to the Department of Energy (DOE), about half of all air pollution and more than 80 percent of air pollution in cities are produced by cars and trucks in the United States. Currently, automobile manufacturers are under pressure to produce more environmentally friendly vehicles.

Natural gas can be used in the transportation sector to cut down on these high levels of pollution from gasoline and diesel powered cars, trucks, and buses. According to the EPA, compared to traditional vehicles, vehicles operating on compressed natural gas have reductions in carbon monoxide emissions of 90 to 97 percent, and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions of 25 percent. Nitrogen oxide emissions can be reduced by 35 to 60 percent, and other non-methane hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by as much as 50 to 75 percent. In addition, because of the relatively simple makeup of natural gas in comparison to traditional vehicle fuels, there are fewer toxic and carcinogenic emissions from natural gas vehicles, and virtually no particulate emissions. Thus the environmentally friendly attributes of natural gas may be used in the transportation sector to reduce air pollution.

Natural gas vehicles represent a growing segment of the transportation sector.  According to the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition, the use of natural gas for vehicles doubled between 2003 and 2009.  Over 100,000 natural gas vehicles are currently on US roads.  A large portion of those vehicles are transit buses, which account for nearly 62 percent of all natural gas vehicles.

Source: Department of Energy-Office of Fossil Energy

Natural gas is the cleanest of the fossil fuels, and thus its many applications can serve to decrease harmful pollution levels from all sectors, particularly when used together with or replacing other fossil fuels. The natural gas industry itself is also committed to ensuring that the process of producing natural gas is as environmentally-friendly as possible. The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition has more information regarding natural gas-powered vehicles.